Chapter 3

The Man and the Covered Woman in 1 Corinthians 11:8-12

The Pauline Analogies

By Steve Santini

July 2016

 

Chapters eleven through fourteen of the apostle Paul’s first Corinthian letter are meant to be understood as a unit. The subject of these chapters is the harmonious functioning of the one body of Christ. The members of this one body are distributed between two groups. These two groups are the saints and the faithful in Christ Jesus. (Eph. 1:1) The Apostle Paul’s gospel brought the reality of these two groups to the forefront and clarified their presence and purposes. To do this he used comparisons.

This Corinthian comparative unit of four chapters is divided into three sections based on the comparison used in each section. The first section runs from the first verse to the seventeenth verse of chapter eleven. In the first section Paul analogically compared the saints and the faithful using the figures of the man and the woman.

In the eleventh chapter of first Corinthians Paul’s introduction stated that what was to follow was comparative in nature in this four chapter unit. He wrote:

Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you.  1 Corinthians 11:2

In consideration of the succeeding context this English translation is marginal at its best. In the phrase as I delivered them to you the word as is the word kathos in the Greek texts. Kathos is a compound word consisting of two Greek words. They are kata and os.  Kata means down from a higher plane. Os is the quintessential Geek word used to introduce a comparison. Kathos is used in scripture to mark comparisons especially comparisons of present or future events to former scriptural truths by its frequent usage in the phrase as it is written. (1Co. 1:31, 2:9, Lk 6:31, 11:30)  In both the Thayer and Friberg lexicons kathos is defined as a comparative. In this verse it is an adverb that modifies the word delivered. The word them is not in the Greek texts. As a result the phrase would be better understood as I delivered comparatively to you.

As Jesus had, the Apostle Paul used comparisons in the forms of metaphors and similes to communicate these spiritual truths.  Paul also used analogical reasoning to deepen and broaden the understandings of these fundamental comparisons established by Jesus Christ, himself. (Mt. 22:1-10)

The analogical usages of the first comparative section are in these verses:

8 For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man. 

9 Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. 

10 For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels. 

11 Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord. 

12 For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.

In this set of verses Paul reasons by using an analogical argument that is constructed upon the figures of the man and the woman. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy begins its definition of an analogy with this sentence. “An analogy is a comparison between two objects, or systems of objects that highlights respects in which they are thought to be similar.” The basic pattern of an analogy is in this form: A is to B as C is to D. Modern scholastic aptitude tests employ analogies in this manner as such: Sole is to foot as palm is to what? The answer would be: Sole is foot to as palm is to hand.

The first two systems of objects in these analogous verses are found in the first two verses.

8 For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man. 

9 Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. 

At first reading verses eight and nine may not appear as an analogy but as a repetition of the same point. However when consideration is taken for the different prepositions employed in the two verses and Paul’s usage of antanaclasis, the classical rhetorical figure of speech where the same words used successively in a sentence or sentences change meanings, an analogy comes to light.

In the first of these two verses the Greek preposition ek meaning out of is used to point out that Eve was taken out of Adam. If this preposition would have been translated literally it would read: “For man is not out of woman; but woman out of man.” (Gen. 2:21-25)

In the second verse the Greek preposition dia meaning by means of or through is used but weakly translated as the word for.  A more literal translation would read: “Neither was man created by means of the woman; but the woman by means the man.”  In this second premise of this analogy the man is the Christ or, as the Old Testament literally reads, the Lord of the gods, who breathed the breath of life into Adam so that he became a living soul. (Gen. 2:7) As Paul wrote, all things were created by him, and for him. (Col. 1:16)

Soul in the Hebrew culture was recognized as feminine. In the thirty-fourth Psalm David wrote, “My soul shall make her boast in the LORD: the humble shall hear thereof, and be glad.” And, like the Hebrew, both the Aramaic and Greek words for soul are in the feminine gender.(Similarly in the Egyptian cosmology the ba of soul was regarded as feminine.) So, in the second verse, the woman rather than being Eve is living soul. As a result the analogy would be Adam is to Eve as Christ is to living soul.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy goes on to state: “An analogical argument is an explicit representation of a form of analogical reasoning that cites accepted similarities between two systems to support the conclusion that some further similarity exists.”

The third verse in this passage is a conclusion for the two analogous systems presented in the first two verses.

10 For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels. 

Again, in this verse the woman is living soul and is to be considered as a collective noun.

The Christ’s first creative act before the foundation of the earth was the generation of the angelic realm. (Ps. 148:2) Scripturally these are considered as the brothers of the Christ who were fashioned to serve and support Christ just as mature younger brothers in the Eastern family were obligated to serve and support the firstborn son. When writing about the angels made spirits to be ministers unto those who would be heirs of salvation, the author of Hebrews referred to those gifted with angelic spirits as “holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling.” (Heb. 3:1) Here, the word holy is the Greek agios in the masculine gender and when it is so presented independently as a noun it is translated as saint. And, both the words angels and saints are masculine gender nouns that are employed to describe differing states and functions of the holy brethren of the Lord.

This verse, in light of the broader previous context, implies that living souls have power when they function under the auspices of the angelic realm of Christ just as an Eastern woman functioned in the community in accordance with her husband’s family status that was designated by her particular head covering.

In first Corinthians, the relationship of the man and the woman is reinforced by the additional lines in verses eleven and twelve that are built upon interdependence rather than separation as was expressed in the preceding verses of the analogical argument.

11 Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord. 

12 For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.

In the first verse of these two lines the prepositional phrase in the Lord is fundamentally important when considering the two groups comprising the body of Christ. A verse in the second section of this four chapter comparative unit that deals with the communal bread sheds light on the phrase in the Lord. In it Paul wrote:

For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 1 Corinthians 11:29

The Greek word diakrino translated discerning in the verse means to separate one from another, implying by context two elements to the Lord’s one body. When considering the context and the scope scripture, these two elements of the Lord’s body would be the living souls of faith as the woman and certain ones accompanied each by an angel made a spirit as the man or, in other words, the saints.

The final verse of this analogous passage summarizes and sources the tri-part expanse of the interrelationship between masculine and feminine in all things as stated in the concluding phrase, but all things of (ek-out of) God. Analogical reasoning cites accepted similarities between two systems that support the conclusion that some further similarities exist.

12 For as the woman is of (ek) the man, even so is the man also by (dia) the woman; but all things of (ek) God.

In the first phrase of this verse reading, For as the woman is of (ek) the man, Paul reiterates that Adam and Eve are the basis of the analogical reasoning of the passage. The words even so introduce concluding further similarities. In the following phrase, the man also by the woman, the man is Christ as the previous context reveals in verses nine and eleven. Who then would the woman be whose means he was brought forth? It couldn’t be living soul because it was Christ, himself who breathed the breath of life into Adam so that he became a living soul nor could it be Eve of the eighth verse. The final phrase, but all things out of God, combined with the context and further scriptural evidence provides an answer.

Luke wrote that both the feminine Holy Spirit and God, the Father interacted in producing the conception of Jesus.

And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. Luke 1:35

Likewise, from this image, the Holy Spirit as a wife and the Father as a husband conceived Christ before the foundations of the world. And the Holy Spirit brought forth their first begotten son, the Christ. And as Eve was out of Adam and living soul was out of Christ, the Holy Spirit was out of God therefore all things are out of God.

With this conclusion the analogical argument may be viewed downward from the apex at the end of verse twelve rather than from the basis upward in verse eight of the passage as follows:

All things out of God

The Holy Spirit is out of God as

Living Soul is out of Christ as

Eve is out of Adam

It may also be viewed like this:

The Father is to the Holy Spirit in Heaven as

Christ in Heaven is to Living Soul on Earth as

Adam is to Eve on Earth

This analogical series would correspond to Paul’s statement in Ephesians that the family of God is in heaven and on earth. (Eph. 3:14,15)

Another analogy inferred from this analogical reasoning would be:

As Christ was begotten in the image of God

Adam was created in the image of Christ

In the first chapter of Romans the Apostle Paul refers to the basis of the analogical reasoning in first Corinthians. He wrote:

For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: Romans 1:20

The invisible things are the Father, the feminine Holy Spirit and Christ. The relationships of these things are understood by the seen things that were made at the beginning of the creation - that would most importantly be Adam and Eve and their subsequent progeny. The phrase even his eternal power and Godhead establishes the essence of the interdependent relationship of masculine feminine duality in things natural and spiritual that are highlighted here in this Romans’ verse and in the first Corinthian passage. His eternal power refers to the Father while the word Godhead refers to the feminine Holy Spirit according to the unique usage of the underlying feminine Greek word theiotes, the feminine counter-part to the masculine Greek word theos translated as God throughout New Testament scripture.

According to nature, life exists as a result of masculine-feminine interaction. Jesus stated that he was the living bread. (Jn. 6:51) (Within his body, as with any son, were the inherited attributes of both his mother, the Holy Spirit and his father, the power of the Highest.) During the last supper Jesus broke a loaf of bread in two pieces and stated, “take, eat; this is my body.” What then were the two physical constituents of the loaf that represented the man and the woman of his one body to those present? The fabric of scripture and the customs of the Hebrews and other ancient Eastern cultures provide answers.

 

For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, Hebrews 4:12a

 

(to be continued)

 

Chapter 2

The Woman and the Angels of 1 Corinthians 11:10

For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.

Related Article

The Feminine Gender of the Holy Spirit: Addendum I

The Apostle Paul's Usage of the Feminine Holy Spirit in Romans Chapter One

Related Appendices

The Synonymous Gods, Angels and Saints

The Saints Shall Judge as Angels

The Conjunctive Kai of Ephesians 1:1

 

Copyright, 2016, Steven G. Santini

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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