Appendix 1a

The Conjunctive Kai in Ephesians 1:1

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus,

 and to the faithful in Christ Jesus: Ephesians 1:1 KJV

by Steve Santini

 

Some scholars doubt that the Greek word translated and in the first verse of Ephesians means and. They base this conjecture on the irregular definitions of the underlying Greek conjunction kai. Lexicons primarily define kai as such: Friberg and Louw Nida - coordinating conjunction; Thayer and Lidddell Scott - copulative conjunction and Bullinger - conjunction of annexation. Kai is translated as and in over eighty-five percent of its usages and also in about another ten percent of it usages. In the remaining five percent of its usages it is translated as even, likewise, both, namely, that is and but. When it is translated other than and or also it is usually accompanied with a modifying adverb or particle. This is not the case with the first verse of Paul’s Ephesians letter. In the places where kai is translated other than and or also and is not accompanied by a modifying adverb or particle the understanding of the subject would have been accomplished just as well if it were translated according to its fundamental meaning as and or also. The translation of kai as but is an unfounded liberty outside the annals of translation principles. If Paul would have meant but, he would have used either the moderately contrasting Greek conjunction de or the strongly contrasting Greek conjunction alla. So, the subtle assertion of some that kai does not mean and in the opening verse of the Apostle Paul’s Ephesians letter is quite misleading.

Others, also circumventing the reality that Paul was addressing two differing groups in his Ephesians letter, write that the phrase “to the saints which are at Ephesus and to the faithful in Christ Jesus” is the figure of speech hendiadys. This would be true only if hendiadys’ strictly classical Greek definition of hen dia duoin, meaning “one by means of two,” were employed. This is not the case. Modern day theologians use expanded definitions and their diluted explanations that came into being to accommodate scholarly criticisms of the works of Renaissance playwrights and poets. This has given grammarians and morphologists license to claim that, in meaning, the second noun becomes an adjective modifying the first noun thereby erasing the original power of the figure itself.

Consequently, we now have translations that change the scripture by dropping the underlying Greek conjunction kai and/or by changing the word faithful from a noun to a modifier of the word saints and reinforcing the error by changing the word order and/or adding words not in, or implied by, the Greek texts.

 

Ephesians 1:1

1550 Stephens Greek Text: Pau/loj avpo,stoloj VIhsou/ Cristou/ dia. qelh,matoj qeou/ toi/j a`gi,oij toi/j ou=sin evn VEfe,sw| kai. pistoi/j evn Cristw/| VIhsou/

Mistranslations

1952 Revised Standard Version: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are also faithful in Christ Jesus:

1984 New International Version: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints in Ephesus, the faithful in Christ Jesus:

1984 New International Version (Britain): Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints in Ephesus, the faithful in Christ Jesus:

1989 New Revised Standard Version: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are in Ephesus and are faithful in Christ Jesus:

1996 New Living Translation: This letter is from Paul, chosen by God to be an apostle of Christ Jesus. It is written to God's holy people in Ephesus, who are faithful followers of Christ Jesus

2001 English Standard Version: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are in Ephesus, and are faithful in Christ Jesus:

.

These translations are erroneous and thereby erase the truth of the saints and the faithful in the Apostle Paul's revelation of the great mystery of Christ and the church. On this subject, Jesus Christ’s words are as applicable as ever: “But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.” Matthew 23:13

 

 

The Apostle Paul's Great Mystery of Christ and the Church

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus,

and to the faithful in Christ Jesus: Ephesians 1:1